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Tolman ; and Edwin R. Tolman and others brought about a liberalization of strict behaviourist doctrine. The posture toward objectivism remained fundamentally the same, even while admitting the existence of intervening i.

A natural outgrowth of behaviourist theory was behaviour therapy , which rose to prominence after World War II and focused on modifying observable behaviour, rather than the thoughts and feelings of the patient as in psychoanalysis. In this approach, emotional problems are thought to result from faulty acquired behaviour patterns or the failure to learn effective responses.

The aim of behaviour therapy, also known as behaviour modification, is therefore to change behaviour patterns. See also conditioning. We welcome suggested improvements to any of our articles. You can make it easier for us to review and, hopefully, publish your contribution by keeping a few points in mind. Your contribution may be further edited by our staff, and its publication is subject to our final approval.

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Behaviorism (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

Please note that our editors may make some formatting changes or correct spelling or grammatical errors, and may also contact you if any clarifications are needed. See Article History. Facts Matter. Start Your Free Trial Today. Learn More in these related Britannica articles:. Eliminativism may at first seem like a preposterous position. Like many extreme philosophical doctrines, however, it is worth taking seriously, both because it forces its opponents to produce illuminating arguments against it and because certain versions of it may actually turn out….

Two types of peak emotional responses to music: The psychophysiology of chills and tears

In the early 20th century British-born American psychologist William McDougall popularized a theory of instinct based on the idea that behaviour has inherent purpose, in the sense that it is aimed at the attainment of a goal. This purposiveness was the expression of a….

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The 15 stimuli used in the study; the thematic category labels are derived from a data-driven, agglomerative hierarchical cluster analysis see Data Analysis and Results sections. Materials Self-reports formed the primary source of data for the current study. Procedure Participants were first presented with an information screen documenting the procedure of the study, followed by an opportunity to provide informed consent. Data analysis Data analysis was performed in R.

Frequency of chills To explore the general efficacy of various stimuli in eliciting the chills response, the frequency of chills experiences reported was first analysed across the modal category level image, text, video, music, MV. Distinct chills experiences To assess the first experimental hypothesis H1 , an exploratory analysis strategy was utilised; MCA was carried out across chills reports, with reported bodily activity as the main dependent variable, and subjective feeling ratings as supplementary variables. Table 2. Eta 2 values for bodily activity data on the first three dimensions of the multiple correspondence analysis medium to large correlations are marked in bold.

Table 3. Polyserial correlations between main bodily activity variables from MCA, and emotional descriptors medium to large positive correlations in bold text. Distinct chills, stimulus themes and empathy In assessing the second H2 and third H3 experimental hypotheses, namely the effects of stimulus themes and individual differences on warm, cold and moving chills, an exploratory analysis strategy was utilised, followed by a confirmatory analysis.

Fig 2. Full solution dendrogram from the agglomerative hierarchical cluster analysis. Table 4. Discussion The current study aimed to assess the possibility of distinct chills experiences, as proposed by previous research [ 10 , 13 , 62 , 63 , 66 ], and to further elucidate the possible underlying processes of the responses through analysing differences across stimuli.

Supporting information.

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S1 Table. Number of chills responses to the fifteen multimedia stimuli, ordered by relative efficacy. S2 Table. Descriptive statistics for the participant sample. Values in parentheses denote standard deviations. Acknowledgments The author would like to thank their PhD supervisory team for invaluable input and suggestions during the design and writing phases of this study.

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References 1. Craig DG. Musicae Scientiae. View Article Google Scholar 2. Consciousness and Cognition. Benedek M, Kaernbach C. Physiological correlates and emotional specificity of human piloerection. Biological Psychology. The emotional power of poetry: neural circuitry, psychophysiology and compositional principles. Social cognitive and affective neuroscience. Music Perception: An Interdisciplinary Journal.

View Article Google Scholar 6. Intensely pleasurable responses to music correlate with activity in brain regions implicated in reward and emotion.

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Brain connectivity reflects human aesthetic responses to music. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience. Anatomically distinct dopamine release during anticipation and experience of peak emotion to music. Nature Neuroscience. Panksepp J. View Article Google Scholar Sloboda JA. Psychology of Music. Bannister S. A survey into the experience of musically induced chills: Emotions, situations and music. Psychoacoustical correlates of musically induced chills.

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Human and Social Studies. Gabrielsson A. Strong experiences with music: Music is much more than just music. Bannister S, Eerola T. Frontiers in Psychology. Darwin CR. The expression of the emotions in man and animals. Original work published ; Huron DB. Sweet anticipation: Music and the psychology of expectation. The Distancing-Embracing model of the enjoyment of negative emotions in art reception. The Behavioral and brain sciences. The role of harmonic expectancy violations in musical emotions: Evidence from subjective, physiological, and neural responses.

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